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UNA NATURE PARK

Although the area of the Una Nature Park is insufficiently explored, below we will present some of the most basic characteristics of the area. We are convinced that in the coming period we will find a way together - that the wider area of the Una River be explored and valorized in the right way.

Nature Park - which is more than that

The area of the Una Nature Park is characterized by specific geological and hydrological phenomena as well as exceptional biological diversity, which is manifested through floristic, faunal and ecosystem values. The Una Valley has long been known for the appearance of large masses of tufa (bigra). The entire Una riverbed is stepped with its longitudinal profile, which is precisely conditioned by the cascading appearances of the bigra, which alternates with flat and calm parts of the stream. According to Matoničkin and Pavletić (1963), four types of travertine formations can be distinguished in the Una River. Most often, there are small barriers with a height of 0.5 to 1.5 m, which are characteristic of this area because they show a specific structure and are somewhat different from all the formations in our other rivers.

The special value of the researched area are the habitats of many fish species. The morphology of the Una allows many different species of fish to be seen in one place. As many as 39 different species of fish have been identified in the Una, which certainly ranks it among the richest of our rivers. The third specificity of the Una Nature Park is the unique landscapes. The landscape is characterized by a mosaic of natural preserved habitats, partially altered and those created by anthropogenic influences. The emerald river Una, and a number of hydrological, geomorphological and other phenomena, including many travertine forms, rapids, waterfalls, ada and river lakes, as well as unbreakable coastal vegetation, and settlements on its shores make this protected area unique.

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The most important tributaries of the Una River

The Una River forms the backbone of the protected area. It is the first right tributary of the Sava River in the Republika Srpska. The total catchment area is 9,368 km2, of which 3,340 km2 is located in the territory of Republika Srpska. Una is 212.5 km long, of which 82 km are in Republika Srpska. It springs in Donja Suvaja in Croatia in the form of several strong karst springs, at about 420 meters above sea level. The most important tributaries within the Una Nature Park, going downstream, are: Vojskova, Sana, Japra, Strigova, Mlječanica and Moštanica. The most important of them, in terms of the amount of water and the surface of the basin, is the Sana, whose total length is 157.7 km.

SEDRE

The Una Valley has long been known for the appearance of large masses of tufa (bigra). The entire Una riverbed is stepped with its longitudinal profile, which is precisely conditioned by the cascading appearances of the bigra, which alternates with flat and calm parts of the stream. According to Matoničkin and Pavletić (1963), four types of travertine formations can be distinguished in the Una River. Most often, there are small barriers with a height of 0.5 to 1.5 m, which are characteristic of this area because they show a specific structure and are somewhat different from all the formations in our other rivers. Namely, barriers in the downstream direction usually create the so-called travertine beards through which water flows. Here the beards are poorly developed, so the travertine barrier in the downstream part is almost vertical. Also, the surfaces of such travertine barriers are extremely spacious (ten and more meters) and end in a downstream part with a T protrusion.

 

The formation of this type of travertine barriers is conditioned by the slow movement of water. The second type of travertine formations on the river Una occurs as far as Novi Grad and thus enters a part of the researched area. This type initially appears as an underwater islet in the deepest depths of the river and the way these tufa is formed is quite different from those where water splashes. Travertine islets grow in height and width and thus two types of formations can appear. The third type of travertine formations on the Una occurs on tectonic waterfalls. In these places, the water is fast and clear, and the deposition of calcium carbonate is more intense. There are no such travertine barriers in the investigated scope. The fourth type of travertine formations occurs in places where the flow has created more airy water and thus more intense deposition. In this way it is created through travertine cascades. This type of tufa has not been identified in the scope either. 

FLORA AND VEGETATION

The flora and vegetation of this part of the Republika Srpska have been sporadically and insufficiently researched. A certain part  data can be found in the work of Slavnić and Bjelčić (1963) who deal with the plant-geographical characteristics of the area between the Una, Sava, Vrbas and the Banja Luka-Prijedor line. However, the flora of the Una watercourse and its shores has not been worked out. All other floristic data are related to the upper course of the Una River. Lakusic et al. (1991), on the vertical profile of the Una River distinguish seven belts: supra-Mediterranean, supmontani, montanski, supramontani, subalpine, alpine and subnival. According to them, the submontane belt is dominant in the lower course of the Una River. The typical vegetation of this area is climatogenic and represents mesophilic forests of sessile oak and hornbeam.

Research on the flora of the lower Una River in neighboring Croatia is somewhat more detailed. First are Šegulja et al. (1998) investigated the area of Zrinska gora, including the Una river basin, and recorded 682 taxa of vascular flora. Borsic et al. (2012) published the results of floristic research of the lower reaches of the Una River in which they list 252 taxa in one vegetation period (spring). These are also the only more detailed floristic studies of the lower reaches of the Una River. The authors of the paper, in addition to listing several taxa interesting for protection (Dactylorhiza incarnata, Carex rostrata, Alopecurus rendlei), list a large number of invasive species: Acer negundo, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Echinocystis lobata, Echinocystis lobata, Erigeron annua and Robinia dogs above approach in research work in the field of flora and vegetation - because the available data indicate only one segment of the richness of the observed area ..

FAUNA OF THE UNA NATURE PARK

The fauna of this area is undoubtedly insufficiently researched, but according to available and incomplete data, 325 animal species have been recorded in the observed area, 92 of which are on the list of the Annex to the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern 1979) and the Convention on Migratory Species. wild animals (Bon 1979). 

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The landscape is characterized by a mosaic of fragments of natural preserved habitats, partially modified and those created by anthropogenic influences. The basic characteristics of the landscape of this area are the clean and emerald river Una, and a number of hydrological, geomorphological and other phenomena, including many travertine forms, rapids, waterfalls, ada and river lakes, as well as unbreakable coastal vegetation that accompanies the river. With its process of creating travertine and travertine phenomena, Una is a unique natural phenomenon on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the low water level of the river, these travertine formations are especially pronounced, when they become a "port" for a large number of birds. The special landscape value of this area is given by river islands that are at least partially overgrown with natural vegetation, as well as larger and smaller complexes of agricultural land along the Una River, especially during the growing season when different agricultural crops alternate in a relatively small area. One of the regional features and value of the overall natural resource is a playful set of different types of habitats in a small area, in contact with picturesque towns and villages in which the only "Una" is preserved.

LANDSCAPE